Student Research Award
The Edward Cawley Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Research in Biology was established in 1993 through the generosity of Dr. and Mrs. David G. Meyers. Since 1993, Dr. Daniel J. Callan has also contributed to this award program. Both Dr. Meyers and Dr. Callan are Loras College graduates of the class of 1972. Eleven students have received this award since 1993. There were two recipients in the years 1997, 1999 and 2000. The award is in the amount of $1000. The student recipient receives half of the award ($500) and the Biology Department receives the other half to be applied to research expenses.

In addition to research proposals being funded, two members of the Biology Department, Professors David Czarnecki and Edward Cawley, conducted studies with planning officials of the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, Division of Soil Conservation (IDALS-DSC). From 1985 through 1998, Professors Czarnecki and Cawley conducted aquatic and terrestrial wildlife surveys in abandoned mine land (AML) sites in Iowa. These studies over this period of time were contracted for a total of $225,000, and 45 reports on these AML sites were submitted to the State of Iowa.
Another series of studies on water quality in Bloody Run Creek in Dubuque County was conducted by Professors Cawley and Czarnecki in the years 1992-1995. These were also contracted with IDALS-DSC for a total of $24,000.

In 1988, Professors Czarnecki and Cawley were awarded a grant of $33,500 from the Iowa State Board of Regents to present an in-service course for junior high school science teachers. The course was on the History and Ecology of the Mississippi River.
Another grant in 1992 awarded to Professor Czarnecki by the Roy J. Carver Trust for $96,860 provided for videomicroscopy training and equipment for Dubuque area schools. A further grant to Professor Czarnecki from the Wahlert Foundation for $2500 in 1992 provided for continued implementation of this program. These grants, totaling $132,860, enabled the Biology Department to provide very useful services and equipment for schools in the Dubuque area.

A major development occurred on April 1, 1999, when a new laboratory was dedicated. It is the Medical Associates Health Plans Recombinant DNA Laboratory, made possible through donations from Medical Associates of Dubuque. The proposal to establish this laboratory was submitted by Professor Gerald Eagleson to Medical Associates of Dubuque, and it was subsequently approved. The laboratory is now under the direction of Professors Gerald Eagleson of the Biology Department and David Speckhard of the Chemistry and Biochemistry Department.

The laboratory will enhance undergraduate research, and will also provide instruction for medical, law and forensics professionals in modern molecular biology techniques. Physicians, attorneys and law enforcement professionals will be offered continuing education opportunities. In the second semester of 1999-2000, a workshop was conducted for physicians on diagnosis and disease management by molecular techniques, and on the theory of gene therapy, for which they received continuing education credits. This new laboratory is a major asset and will be of service not only to Loras College, but to the larger Dubuque area community as well.

Funding from external sources has had and will continue to have a significant impact on Loras College, the Biology Department, students and the Dubuque community. A summary of this funding is shown in Table 9.

Table 9. Summary of external funding to the Biology Department since 1973.

Research (from Environmental Research Center) $229,500
Research (from granting agencies) $830,770
Contracted research projects


Educational/Instructional grants $132,860
Medical Associates Rcombinant DNA Lab $91,500
Edward Cawley Award for Excellence in Undergrad Research in Biology $5,000
Total $1,538,630

The two individuals most instrumental in the development of the Biology Department deserve recognition beyond the mere listing of their years of service. They are the Rev. Msgr. John W. Howell and the Rev. Warren E. Nye. Msgr. Howell was perceived by many students as stern, unbending and somewhat aloof, while Father Nye was seen as more affable and urbane. Despite their differing personalities, both possessed common characteristics. Both showed exceptional commitment and loyalty to Loras College. Both received their bachelor’s degree from Loras College, and after completing their graduate work, both spent the rest of their lives on the Loras College campus. This is where they wanted to be. Their lives as priests and professors were dedicated to Loras College and its students.

The Rev. Msgr. John W. Howell, A.M.
Our first biologist, the Rev. Msgr. John W. Howell, a native of Eagle Grove, Iowa, deserves credit for establishing a sound basis for the development of the Biology Department. He accomplished much with limited resources, but with unlimited expenditure of energy on his part. He was the only permanent professor and the mainstay of the department from 1913 until Rev. Warren Nye began his teaching career in 1938.

Msgr. Howell was a stern disciplinarian and taskmaster. He demanded absolute attention and best effort, with zero tolerance for any frivolity or nonsense in classes. If a student was careless enough to doze off in lecture, he might be abruptly awakened by the impact of a chalk eraser that Msgr. Howell threw with accuracy. He did this occasionally to maintain the effect of keeping the class fully alert. At the time it was accepted as “his way” of conducting a class and perhaps looked upon with some degree of amusement. Today he would probably be accused of assault and battery.

He had the most withering stare of anyone I have ever known. When he suddenly stopped in lecture and glared at someone, you knew that someone had incurred his displeasure and you were relieved to know it was not you. This treatment was usually for students not paying full attention.

After World War II, veterans began attending college in large numbers, some of whom were aged beyond their years and had experienced the worst of what humans can do to each other. Msgr. Howell modified his pedagogical techniques to accommodate these students (tactics for 18-year olds fresh out of high school would not apply to WWII veterans), but there was never any doubt about who was in command of the classroom. To him, attending college was very serious business, and his methods in the classroom were his way of “assisting” students in applying themselves fully to the task.

Msgr. Howell’s teaching techniques, however, must be considered in context with the times. At this time, Loras College was an all-male institution (except for summer sessions), and after all, this was over a half-century ago, and society has changed a bit since then. Some of the societal constraints and cultural influences in effect then no longer exist. His methods were effective for his time.

It was usually with some trepidation that his advisees went to his office to get their report cards. When you arrived, he would get out your report, carefully scrutinize it, then fix you with his stare for a few moments, followed by another glance at the report, all without saying a word. When he was sure he had your full attention, he would make appropriate comments. He was concerned not only with your grade in biology courses, but with the other courses as well. There were no “gentleman’s C’s” in his gradebook. He set the standards and you got what you earned, from A to F.

Msgr. Howell was my mentor when I first began teaching as an assistant in the Biology Department. He was also a stern taskmaster in that role, although he was somewhat more relaxed and sociable outside the classroom. If you were not already fully aware of the importance and value of responsibility and accountability in our actions as a member of an academic community and as a citizen, you would have become so quickly under his tutelage. I understood his methods and got along well with him, but he could intimidate the timid.

He set high standards for the Biology Department. His students were successful and he developed a sound reputation for the department despite its small size and limited resources. Those who were not here during the Great Depression and World War II can never fully understand the conditions that existed in those times. He was cited by the Rev. Msgr. Michael J. Martin, President of Loras College, for his competency and dedication in his service to Loras College. Msgr. Howell’s health declined in the late 1940’s, but he made no concession to his illness. With a fierce will to continue, he appeared in the classroom as long as he possibly could. He died in December, 1950.

When the move was made from Hennessy Hall to the new St. Joseph Hall of Science in 1964, the Biology Department was equipped with all new microscopes provided by former students and friends in Msgr. Howell’s memory. His contribution to Loras College, however, far surpasses that which is indicated by the commemorative plaque on the wall in the Biology Department.

The Rev. Warren E. Nye, Ph.D.
Father Warren Nye retired from teaching in 1984, but continued to serve as a priest until his death in 1986. His tenure as Professor of Biology was the longest of any, 46 years. In November of 1990, the Rev. Warren E. Nye Memorial Laboratory was established in Room 14 of St. Joseph Hall of Science. New equipment in the laboratory was made available through the contributions of friends, colleagues and students of Father Nye. The following is a copy of an address given by Professor Emeritus Joseph Kapler on the dedication day:

We are here today because of a person whom most of us have known and I have been asked to deliver a few remarks suitable for the occasion. In thinking of what to say, I quickly realized that any words spoken here could not add to what Father Nye accomplished in his life’s work, but perhaps by looking back a bit, we can better appreciate what he accomplished, or even enkindle in ourselves some of the dedication and commitment with which he served Loras College and its students. To those of you who knew him well, there is not much I can say that you do not already know. Some of you, however, including newer members of the Biology Department, did not know Father Nye at all, or perhaps only after he retired from teaching.

I have been privileged to know and be associated with Father Nye for 42 years. He was here when I came to Loras College as a student in 1944 and over the decades I came to expect him to be here forever as part of the college. Even now, four years after his death, there is sometimes still a lingering expectation in my mind of seeing him when I enter this building, but then reality quickly intrudes.

When I first came to Loras College, the Biology Department consisted of Monsignor John Howell and Father Warren Nye. Student numbers were very low during World War II (less than 300) and almost all of them lived on campus. By the end of the academic year, we all knew each other. Following the war, there was a tremendous influx of students. The

so-called “GI Bill” made it possible for many service veterans to attend college. Monsignor Howell’s health began to decline and Father Nye’s work load increased greatly. Back then you could not just hire someone to teach biology when the need arose. Not many students went to college and graduate school during the depression years of the 1930’s and World War II disrupted everything. It was not until the 1960’s that the supply caught up with the demand. Despite this heavy work load, which no one would now accept, Father Nye was always enthusiastic, well-organized, well-prepared and precise in expression for all lectures and laboratory periods. He was a demanding teacher; he did his best to motivate students to do their best, and to never be content with mediocrity.

Father Nye also served as chaplain at various institutions in Dubuque and assisted with priestly duties on campus with equal enthusiasm and commitment. Monsignor Howell died in 1950 at which time Father Nye assumed the chairmanship. Under his chairmanship, the Biology Department grew to its present state of six full-time members along with many changes in course offerings.

Father Nye rendered exemplary service not only to Loras College, but also to the state of Iowa. It was not too well known at the time that Father Nye was a member of the Iowa Board of Basic Science Examiners for 15 years. It was necessary to successfully complete these examinations to be licensed to practice the healing arts in the state of Iowa. The board members were appointed by the Governor of Iowa. The other members were Elmer Hertel of Wartburg College, Leland Johnson of Drake University, Irving Fishman of Grinnell College and Ben Peterson of the University of Iowa. The Iowa Board became a close-knit group and they were well-suited to the task. I was fortunate to have known them all.[4]

The board members prepared the examinations and scored them. The examinations were given four times a year and the number ranged from about 75 to 115. Four times a year Father Nye came back from Des Moines with a big stack of papers to grade and they were not machine scored. I wondered how he managed to do all this, but there was no secret to it. He had the self-discipline to make the most efficient use of his time. He did not waste time on frivolous pursuits.

In addition to serving the state of Iowa with this work, it had another effect which directly benefited Loras College. In administering these examinations, the board members could see the effects of undergraduate programs on the development of students. Their sharing of talents and exchange of ideas gave them a keen awareness of what good basic programs in biology should consist of and what was necessary to keep abreast of the times.

The idea of establishing an organization for biologists to provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas on the teaching of biology was discussed by this group. There are professional societies to which biologists can belong that are primarily concerned with research, but a need was perceived for an organization that dealt with the teaching of college biology. I do not know if this idea originated with this group, but I do know that they talked about it prior to its formation. In 1957, the first meeting of this organization, the Association of Midwestern College Biology Teachers (AMCBT)[5], was held at Drake University hosted by board member Leland Johnson. This past October the AMCBT met for the 33rd time at Indiana State University at Terre Haute. Dr. Tom Davis of our Biology Department attended that meeting. Next year, the meeting will be held at Rockhurst College in Kansas City.

Father Nye was well known in the early years of the AMCBT and also in the Iowa Academy of Science. He was held in high esteem by his colleagues and even today I still get comments or inquiries about him from those who knew him throughout the Midwest area.

Despite the demands on his time with teaching, duties as chaplain and work with the Iowa Board, he was always accessible to students outside of class time. After returning from his doctorate work, he lived the rest of his life on campus and all his students knew where he lived. He was truly dedicated to helping students and was genuinely concerned with their progress.

As busy as he was, he did manage to find time for recreation, and for him recreation was all of the great outdoors. He enjoyed the Mississippi River, the hills and valleys and woodlands of this area with all the varied forms of wildlife in all seasons of the year, and even the open road on his motorcycle. He would often tell me on Monday what he had seen if he had a chance to get out over the weekend. He would frequently invite others along, including students, to share in his enjoyment of the living world.

Father Nye was a native of Madison, Wisconsin, and during his student years at the University of Wisconsin he became well acquainted with the Leopold family—Aldo, Estella and the five children. Aldo Leopold, born and raised in Burlington, Iowa, was one of the foremost individuals in this country to promote the cause of conservation and also its most eloquent spokesman. I am sure that having known the Leopolds intensified his interest in our living environment. I distinctly remember how shocked he was when the news came of the untimely death of Aldo Leopold in April of 1948.

Father Nye also loved the Colorado Rockies. He spent quite a few summers there. Part of the time he worked on a ranch and I remember him coming back one summer with an ankle in a cast as a result of being thrown from a horse. The cowboy boots he occasionally wore to class were not just an affectation. He became accustomed to them, felt comfortable in them and simply liked them. They were beautifully crafted boots, however, not the kind one would wear to clean up the corral. In later years, skiing in Colorado became an annual excursion for him during Christmas vacation.

Father Nye was a biologist, but he also had other interests. His breadth of interests, including art, literature and music, made him an ideal person for a liberal arts college. If a teacher is to serve as a role model, you could find none better. His personal qualities of unselfishness, dedication, commitment and loyalty to this institution, his excellent teaching and maintenance of high standards and his cheerful and positive attitude in interacting with everyone, even in times of adversity, will always be remembered by those who knew him.

You will notice that the commemorative plaque on the wall is constructed of a beautiful piece of walnut and that is most fitting given his love of the woodlands and things of nature. On the plaque is the Loras emblem on which is imprinted the Loras motto PRO DEO ET PATRIA[6]. With his faithful service in the priesthood, his service to the community and the state of Iowa, and the beneficiaries of his teaching serving people throughout the length and breadth of this country, Father Nye has certainly done his part to uphold this motto. Now, it is up to us who are here to do our part.

The laboratory and equipment are necessarily important in our program, but even more important are the people who will be working here—teachers and students. What they accomplish can far outweigh the value of the physical facilities. The character of a college is shaped not so much by its physical facilities as it is by its human component, and that includes everyone, students, faculty, governing board, administrators, clerical staff, all the maintenance people, alumni, benefactors and friends. Today we are honoring a member of the faculty who has excelled and stands out as an example to inspire all of us. We are confident that by dedicating this laboratory, the traditions and quality of work that Father Warren Nye was so instrumental in establishing will continue for years to come.

The Rev. William C. Kunsch, A.M.
Another professor in the Biology Department who left his mark on Loras College, and certainly on his students, was Father William C. Kunsch. His impact on students is best described by a former student, so I include a tribute to Father Kunsch by Patrick J. McDonald (’61) who now resides in Des Moines, Iowa. This article appeared in the Spring 1999 issue of Loras College Magazine.

I cannot resist adding an anecdote to Mr. McDonald’s account of his experiences with Father Kunsch. The scene was registration for the fall semester in the Field House. The procedure was quite different back then and classes began the next day. Father Kunsch and I were seated at the Biology table registering students for the courses being offered. A freshman student came to the table to register for General Biology. Father Kunsch assigned him to a section and gave the card to the student. The student looked at the card and the class schedule for a few moments and then said, “Oh Father, I can’t take this section.” “Why not?” asked Father Kunsch. The new student, not realizing that he was talking with Father Kunsch said, “Because Father Kunsch teaches this section. My brother was here last year and he told me that whatever I do, be sure not to get Father Kunsch for biology” (oh, to be so young and innocent). Struggling to contain myself, I watched for his reaction. A flicker of amusement came over his face as he said, “Sorry, you have no choice. The other section is closed. Your section starts at 8:00 in the morning. Be there-and on time.” The student left shaking his head and mumbling to himself, probably wondering what he had done to deserve this, or why fate seemed so cruel to him. Father Kunsch then said with a chuckle, “Wait until he sees me in class tomorrow morning.” Father Kunsch was well aware of his reputation (somewhat exaggerated) and did nothing to change it. Classroom experience with Father Kunsch, especially in the laboratory, left a lasting impression on students.

Gerald W. Kaufmann, Ph.D.
A tragedy, similar to the tragedy of 1944, occurred on January 31, 1998, when Professor Gerald Kaufmann was killed in a fall from a ladder at his home. The following tribute appeared in the February 12, 1998, issue of The Lorian. It was written by Professor Emeritus Joseph Kapler for those of the Loras community who did not know him so that they would have an understanding and appreciation of who he was, and of the extent of our loss.

It was with shock and disbelief that I received the news of Dr. Kaufmann’s death on Saturday, January 31. Knowing that unexpected deaths will occur does not soften the blow when it comes. His death is a grievous loss to his family, the Biology Department, Loras College, and to all who knew him; all the more so because it happened at the peak of his career as a biologist and educator. To all who knew him, especially his family and the Biology Department, there is now a great void which will not quickly be filled.

I have known Dr. Kaufmann for forty years, first as a student and later as a colleague in the Biology Department. I remember distinctly the Vertebrate Anatomy class in which he was a student and I was the instructor. He did not hesitate to ask thoughtful questions. The laboratory was in the lower floor of Hennessy Hall and I would frequently see him there after class hours working on the material. This was not required, but he spent much time and intense effort in his studies. He had an innate curiosity about nature and this motivated him to learn as much as he could. His enthusiasm for studying biology was such that no external prodding was needed. It came from within.

This enthusiasm for study never diminished. There was always more to learn to better understand the natural world. His studies at Loras College and graduate work at Iowa State University and the University of Minnesota gave him a solid, broad background on which to build his knowledge of animal biology and animal behavior which were his special interests. He was a lifelong student of biology and natural history.

His studies and travels took him to Alaska, Antarctica, Canada, Wyoming, Central American, New Zealand, and frequent trips to the Florida Keys with the Marine Biology class. He was at home in such diverse habitats as the northwoods, the prairies, marshes and lakes, some tropical areas and the sea. Being a native of Dubuque, and a lifelong outdoor enthusiast, he was thoroughly familiar with diverse habitats in this area, including the Mississippi River. This knowledge was put to good use in local field trips. His accumulated knowledge served him well as a teacher and enabled him to share his experience with students.

Dr. Kaufmann did not confine his activities to the lecture hall, laboratory and library. To him, the outdoor world with all its varied habitats was the great textbook from which to learn. In this process, critical observation with analysis and interpretation of what is observed is crucial to understanding how the living world functions. He possessed a keen eye and discerned things that others overlooked. Dr. Kaufmann’s ability to observe and his accumulated knowledge reminds me of a line in Shakespeare’s Anthony and Cleopatra in which the soothsayer says: “In nature’s infinite book of secrecy, a little I can read.” Dr. Kaufmann was able to read more than just a little of nature’s book.

One of his former students who was at the funeral, Theresa Blackburn, now with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources at Bellevue, Iowa told me that she considered field trips to be highlights of his courses. She spoke of his dynamic approach to these studies, and that such excursions were rewarding, inspiring and enjoyable learning experiences. She also stated that Dr. Kaufmann kept in contact with her after employment to see how the work was progressing.

Another former student, Dr. Dennis Kopp, a Program Leader with the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service in Washington, D.C., traveled to Dubuque for the funeral. Dr. Kopp credits Dr. Kaufmann for being a major influence in the development of his career. He spoke at the funeral of his thoughts and remembrances of Dr. Kaufmann. The distance he traveled to be here is an indication of the esteem he held for Dr. Kaufmann.

In addition to his work with teaching, Dr. Kaufmann was also involved with research. The results were published in a number of articles in refereed journals, which are evidence of scholarly research and writing. His first publication was on the results of his thesis project as a student at Loras College. This appeared in the Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science in 1962. Since, then, seventeen more articles, some of which included work done by Loras students in their thesis projects were published in a variety of journals. Being involved in ongoing research is complementary to and enhances teaching at an academic institution. Nothing is static in the living world or in biological knowledge. The continuing quest for new knowledge and better synthesis of what we know is essential in the study and instruction of biology.

Dr. Kaufmann held memberships in seven professional societies, and over the years presented a number of papers at meetings of these organizations. This activity kept him touch with what was happening in the scientific world, especially in the areas of his expertise.

In the last few years I shared office space with Dr. Kaufmann. There was considerable student traffic in and out. He was always available to students and the office door was never closed when he was in the building. He occasionally expressed disappointment when some students did not do as well in examinations as they could have with more study and effort. He always expected an honest effort.

We had areas of common interest and Dr. Kaufmann willingly provided specific information if available. He was always pleasantly disposed and a delight to talk with, whatever the subject. A conversation with him had an uplifting effect and I found myself hoping he would be in whenever I entered the building. After conversing for a time, we both agreed we would have to stop talking if we were to get any individual work done that day.

One of my interests is phenology, the study of natural events in the plant and animal worlds in relation to seasonal climate changes. I could always depend on Dr. Kaufmann for reliable observations of some of these events. One of these events in the springtime is wild geese winging their way northward to their summer nesting grounds. If you are outside in a quiet area (day or night), you can hear them before you see them; at first a faint sound, getting louder as they fly overhead and then fading away as they disappear in the distance. To me, the sound of wild geese moving northward is a stirring sound. It is nature’s proclamation that spring is coming, even if there is still snow on the ground, and that the resurgence of new life will soon displace the dormancy of winter. The call of wild geese will soon be heard (early March) at Dr. Kaufmann’s gravesite high on a blufftop adjacent to the Mississippi River. I will probably always think of him when I hear wild geese overhead announcing the change of seasons twice a year. He was as knowledgeable as anyone in this area about migratory waterfowl on the Mississippi flyway.

It will be difficult to adjust to Dr. Kaufmann’s absence in the Biology Department. His untimely death is a reminder of how fragile life can be. It is also a reminder to all of us not to put off until tomorrow a kind word or deed, or anything that might make the world a better place, for tomorrow may never come. I will not attempt to list all his qualities except to say that he was unpretentious, courteous, tolerant, kind, and a devoted and loving husband and father. All of us may have been influenced by him in different ways, but in each case the influence was positive and has enriched our lives. His influence will be with us as long as there are those who have known him.

Following his death, a Kaufmann Memorial Scholarship for Excellence in Natural History or Nature Art was established to assist students in pursuing their academic goals at Loras College. The scholarship, in the amount of $1000, is awarded annually to a qualified student entering the third or fourth year. The first recipient of this award, given in the 1999-2000 academic year, was Mindy Hubler, a biology major. The recognition of the 1997-1998 Teacher of the Year was awarded posthumously to Professor Gerald Kaufmann.

We have seen great changes in the period of time covered by this report. When the department was established in 1920, who would have foreseen all the developments that have occurred in our understanding of life since then? Given all the changes that have occurred, what can we anticipate during an equal period of time (80 years) in the future?

Biotechnology is now upon us. What are all the implications and ramifications of the human genome project (one of the great events of the 20th century)? How will other aspects of biotechnology, such as cloning and genetically modified (GM) foods affect us? Some GM foods are now being produced, and in the next ten years all the major food crops in the United States are expected to be genetically modified (harvesting the double helix). There is already some opposition to the production and use of GM foods, especially in Europe. Will this opposition increase or diminish? Public opinion can influence such developments. Are we rushing the products of biotechnology to market too soon without adequate testing? The full impact of biotechnology on the human population and on the environment in which we live may not be known for decades, so we should not be shortsighted in our expectations.

Will our increasing use of the earth’s natural resources be sustainable? What hitherto unknown diseases may appear in the future as we see greater concentrations of the human population? Will any be as deadly or worse than AIDS or the Ebola virus? These questions (and many others) indicate that the study of biology along with research will continue to be as great a challenge as ever, even greater as increasing human activity exerts greater pressure on our environment.

With its past experience, diversity of expertise, and the new recombinant DNA laboratory, the Biology Department is well-prepared to assist students through instruction and research to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Five of the fulltime faculty members have research grants for the 2000-2001 academic year, including support for student research. The granting agencies are the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Geological Society of America, Iowa Academy of Science, the Iowa Foundation for Undergraduate Research and the Wisconsin Ornithological Society.

The tragedies of 1944 (Regan) and 1998 (Kaufmann) were great shocks and exceedingly disruptive, but life goes on whether or not we are here. We are players on the stage for only a brief period of time. Our task in the Biology Department for our period of time is to do our best to help students understand and appreciate the living world in all its manifestations, the interconnections and interdependence of all life forms and their interaction with environmental conditions on planet Earth, and to set them on the path to being lifelong students, whatever their career choice may be. After all, what could be more interesting and exciting than continuing study of the very basis of our existence?

The two illustrations are pages from college publications that indicate the status and changes that occurred preceding the development of the Biology Department.


[4] The Board no longer exists. The last living member of the former Board, Professor Fishman of Grinnell College, died on January 10, 1999.
[5]Now known as the Association of College and University Biology Educators (ACUBE).
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